Spasticity is a common condition in stroke survivors, and may be associated with pain and joint contracture, leading to poor quality of life and increased caregiver burden. Although the underlying mechanisms are not well-understood, it may be due to disruption of the balance of supra-spinal inhibitory and excitatory sensory inputs directed to the spinal cord, leading to a state of disinhibition of the stretch reflex. The treatment options include physical therapy, modality and pharmacological treatments, neurolysis with phenol and botulinum toxin, and surgical treatment. A successful treatment of spasticity depends on a clear comprehension of the underlying pathophysiology, natural history, and impact on patient's performances. This review focuses on the epidemiology, presumed mechanism, clinical manifestation, and recent evidences of management.
Volume 12, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages 280-284