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The effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for improved spasticity outcomes.

There is "moderate" evidence for electro-neuromuscular stimulation and acupuncture as an adjunct therapy to conventional routine care (pharmacological and rehabilitation) in persons following stroke. "Low" quality evidence for rehabilitation programs targeting spasticity (such as induced movement therapy, stretching, dynamic elbow-splinting, occupational therapy) in stroke and other neurological conditions; extracorporeal shock-wave therapy in brain injury; transcranial direct current stimulation in stroke; transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for other neurological conditions; physical activity programs and repetitive magnetic stimulation in persons with MS, vibration therapy for SCI and stretching for other neurological condition. For other interventions, evidence was inconclusive.

Ann Phys Rehabil Med. 2019 Jul;62(4):265-273.

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